Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s.
The World Wide Web: The special issue was I think later abandoned.
Abstract The World Wide Web was designed originally as an interactive world of shared information through which people could communicate with each other and with machines. Since its inception in it has grown initially as a medium for the broadcast of read-only material from heavily loaded corporate servers to the mass of Internet connected consumers.
Recent commercial interest its use within the organization under the "Intranet" buzzword takes it into the domain of smaller, closed, groups, in which greater trust allows more interaction. In the future we look toward the web becoming a tool for even smaller groups, families, and personal information systems.
Other interesting developments would be the increasingly interactive nature of the interface to the user, and the increasing use of machine-readable information with defined semantics allowing more advanced machine processing of global information, including machine-readable signed assertions.
Introduction This paper represents the personal views of the author, not those of the World Wide Web Consortium members, nor of host institutes. This paper gives an overview of the history, the current state, and possible future directions for the World Wide Web.
The Web is simply defined as the universe of global network-accessible information.
Its existence marks the end of an era of frustrating and debilitating incompatibilities between computer systems. The explosion of advisability and the potential social and economical impact has not passed unnoticed by a much larger community than has previously used computers.
The commercial potential in the system has driven a rapid pace of development of new features, making the maintenance of the global interoperability which the Web brought a continuous task for all concerned.
At the same time, it highlights a number of research areas whose solutions will become more and more pressing, which we will only be able to mention in passing in this paper.
Let us start, though, as promised, with a mention of the original goals of the project, conceived as it was as an answer to the author's personal need, and the perceived needs of the organization and larger communities of scientists and engineers, and the world in general.
History Before the web The origins of the ideas on hypertext can be traced back to historic work such as Vanevar Bush's famous article "As We May Think" in Atlantic monthly in in which he proposed the "Memex" machine which would by a process of binary coding, photocells and instant photography, allow microfilms cross-references to be made and automatically followed.
For all these visions, the real world in which the technologically rich field of High Energy Physics found itself in was one of incompatible networks, disk formats, data formats, and character encoding schemes, which made any attempt to transfer information between dislike systems a daunting and generally impractical task.
This was particularly frustrating given that to a greater and greater extent computers were being used directly for most information handling, and so almost anything one might want to know was almost certainly recorded magnetically somewhere.
The intent was that this space should span from a private information system to a public information, from high value carefully checked and designed material, to off-the-cuff ideas which make sense only to a few people and may never be read again. The design of the world-wide web was based on a few criteria.
An information system must be able to record random associations between any arbitrary objects, unlike most database systems; If two sets of users started to use the system independently, to make a link from one system to another should be an incremental effort, not requiring unscalable operations such as the merging of link databases.
Any attempt to constrain users as a whole to the use of particular languages or operating systems was always doomed to failure; Information must be available on all platforms, including future ones; Any attempt to constrain the mental model users have of data into a given pattern was always doomed to failure; If information within an organization is to be accurately represented in the system, entering or correcting it must be trivial for the person directly knowledgeable.
Finally, a goal of the Web was that, if the interaction between person and hypertext could be so intuitive that the machine-readable information space gave an accurate representation of the state of people's thoughts, interactions, and work patterns, then machine analysis could become a very powerful management tool, seeing patters in our work and facilitating our working together through the typical problems which beset the management of large organizations.
It was designed to meet the criteria above, and according to well-known principles of software design adapted to the network situation.
Original WWW architecture diagram from The pink arrow shows the common standards: Independence of specifications Flexibility was clearly a key point. Every specification needed to ensure interoperability placed constraints on the implementation and use of the Web. Therefore, as few things should be specified as possible minimal constraint and those specifications which had to be made should be made independent modularity and information hiding.
The independence of specifications would allow parts of the design to be replaced while preserving the basic architecture.Past and Present Partners. Employment and Social Development Canada; HEC Montréal (University of Montréal) IBM Canada Ltd.
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a valuable lesson that characterizes a practice with the potential of helping individuals relate differently to the effects of past events that confront them in the present. Mindfulness. 4 days ago · Vint Cerf discussed the history of the internet as well as its impact on modern society on Sept.
13 as part of the Baker Institute’s Civil Scientist Lecture Series. "Father of the Internet” Vint Cerf discusses the past, present and future of the Internet Will Ledig | September 24, Cerf also briefly covered the recent spread of.
To celebrate Black History Month , learn about notable black social-impact leaders and organizations, past and present. One index of globalization is the KOF Index of Globalization, which measures three important dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political.
Another is the A.T. Kearney / Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index. Letter writing, phone calls, organization of individuals or groups, protesting, and education campaigns through face to face, posters, or other literacy avenues promote communication and .