This question has grabbed my attention for much of my adult life, starting with grad school. I was assigned to TA a Bible as Literature class; not having been raised with any religion, I rapidly set to study, and was among other things amazed at the sheer amount of violence and horror in Tanakh.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Long an object of veneration and conflict, the holy city of Jerusalem has been governed, both as a provincial town and a national capital, by an extended series of dynasties and states.
In the early 20th century the city, along with all of historic Palestinebecame the focus of the competing national aspirations of Zionists and Palestinian Arabs. This struggle often erupted in violence. The following year Israel declared the city its capital. During the Six-Day War ofthe Jewish state occupied the Jordanian sector and shortly thereafter expanded the city boundaries—thereby annexing some areas of the West Bank previously held by the Jordanians—and extended its jurisdiction over the unified city.
The status of the city remained a central issue in the dispute between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs, who claim east Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. Area 49 square miles square km. Wayne McLean Character of the city Jerusalem plays a central role in the spiritual and emotional perspective of the three major monotheistic religions.
For all three faiths it is a holy city, a centre of pilgrimageand an object of devotion. The Mount of Olives is in the background. Arabs in traditional and modern attire; Christians, Western and Oriental, in their infinite variety of secular garb and monastic vestments; Jews in casual and Orthodox dress; and hosts of tourists combine in colourful, kaleidoscopic patterns.
Sunlight falling on the white and pink stone used for all construction gives even quite mundane buildings an aura of distinction. The scent of cooking and spices, the peal of church bells, the calls of muezzins from minarets, and the chanting of Jewish prayers at the Western Wailing Wall all add flavour to the life of the city.
The absence of vehicular traffic within most of the Old City helps preserve its special character. Yet outside the walls Jerusalem is in every sense a modern city, with its network of streets and transportation, high-rise buildings, supermarkets, businesses, schools, restaurants, and coffeehouses.
The persistent mingling of Hebrew, Arabic, English, and other languages in the streets brings to mind the multicultural and political complexities of life in this revered city.
The modern unified city is the largest municipality in Israel or the West Bank and is the heart of an urban agglomeration that spills outside the city limits into adjacent areas of both jurisdictions.
At the centre of the modern municipality is the Old City, a walled medieval enclosure of less than half a square mile roughly one square kmfrom which the entire city has grown.
To the east the city looks down on the Dead Sea and across the Jordan River to the arid mountains of eastern Jordan the biblical mountains of Moab. To the west it faces the coastal plain and the Mediterranean Seaabout 35 miles 60 km away.
Climate Jerusalem has a mixed subtropical semiarid climate with warm dry summers and cool rainy winters. The average annual precipitation is about 24 inches mmand snowfalls—which in some years do not occur—are generally light.
Average daily humidity is about 62 percent in the daytime but may drop 30 to 40 percent under sharav conditions. Jerusalem has no serious air pollution. Its elevation ensures the free mixing of surface air, and, apart from automobile exhaust, pollutant sources are few, for there is little heavy industry.
Plant and animal life Lying on the watershed between the relatively rainy Hare Yehuda Hills of Judaea and the dry Judaean desert, Jerusalem has both Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian vegetation.
The various red and brown Mediterranean soils, formed by the different types of limestone chalk covering the hills, support as many as 1, plant species. In the spring, masses of wildflowers proliferate on slopes and wastelands.
Jerusalem is exceptionally rich in birdlife, which includes 70 resident species and about winter visitors. Those most commonly seen are the hooded crow, jay, swift which nests in old walls and buildingsand bulbul. Large flocks of white storks overfly the city.
In the winter, starlings and white wagtails roost in the thousands at various points in the metropolitan area.
However, goldfinches and linnets, formerly numerous, now rarely appear. Also often observed within the city are the lesser kestrel and the Palestinian sunbird. The only venomous snake is the Palestine viper, but this is rarely seen in urban areas.
The smooth lizard and common chameleon frequent gardens and the walls of houses. The Old Citywhich is believed to have been continuously inhabited for almost 5, years, forms a walled quadrilateral about 3, feet metres long on each side.
The rest of the area within the walls is a typical Middle Eastern city, with its mosques and madrasahs Muslim religious colleges ; its churches, convents, hospices, and residences of high ecclesiastical dignitaries; its synagogues and yeshivas Talmudic academies ; its hidden courtyards and gardens; and its medieval vaulted triple bazaar in the centre and labyrinth of smaller souks along David Street, which leads from Jaffa Gate and the old Ottoman Citadel toward the Temple Mount.
Old City of Jerusalem.Historian Fritz Stern once remarked that the Great War was the “first calamity of the 20 th century, the calamity from which all other calamities sprang.” On the centenary of World War I there is an overwhelming sensation of futility in the war’s outbreak, its nature, and its legacies.
And I John saw the holy city Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride for her husband.’ ‘And he carried me away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God, having the glory of God.
Crusades history may not be as obvious in Jerusalem as it is in Acre, the beautiful city to the northwest of Jerusalem, but it is obvious that the Christian Crusades in Jerusalem’s history made their mark not only in architecture, but also in romantic legend. Jan 01, · The Great and Holy War offers the first look at how religion created and prolonged the First World War, and the lasting impact it had on Christianity and world religions more extensively in the century that followed.
The war was fought by the world’s leading Christian nations, who presented the conflict as a holy war/5(43). Covers the history of the Crusades, from Pope Urban II's call to holy war through its violent conflicts, while explaining their direct influence on the modern world's ongoing Middle East turbulence among Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
In his masterful book, “The Great and Holy War: How World War I Became a Religious Crusade,” Jenkins argues that WWI was not only a “thoroughly religious event” but an event which drew the global religious map as we understand it today.