Cold War[ edit ] The term is most often used in reference to a period of general easing of the geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States ; it was the distinct lessening of the Cold War. It began inas a core element of the foreign policy of U. The Nixon administration promoted greater dialogue with the Soviet government, including regular summit meetings and negotiations over arms control and other bilateral agreements. The Helsinki Accords, in which the Soviets promised to grant free elections in Europe, has been called a major concession to ensure peace by the Soviets.
The American Colonies were expected to help repay debt that had accrued during the French and Indian War. Tensions escalated from to over issues of taxation without representation and control by King George III.
Stemming from the Boston Massacre of when British Redcoats opened fire on civilians, rebellion consumed the outraged colonists. The British Parliament had imposed a series of taxes such as the Stamp Act ofand later the Tea Act ofagainst which an angry mob of colonists protested in the Boston Tea Party by dumping chests of tea into Boston Harbor.
The British Parliament responded to the defiance of the colonists by passing what the colonials called the Intolerable Acts in This course of events ultimately triggered the first shots fired in the Battles of Lexington and Concord in and the beginning of the American War of Independence.
While the goal of attaining independence was sought by a majority known as Patriotsa minority known as Loyalists wished to remain as British subjects indefinitely. When the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in Maydeliberations conducted by notable figures such as Benjamin FranklinThomas JeffersonJohn HancockSamuel Adamsand John Adams eventually resulted in seeking full independence from the mother country.
Thus, the Declaration of Independenceunanimously ratified on 4 Julywas a radical and decisive break. The United States of America became the first colony in the world to successfully achieve independence in the modern era.
The British returned in force in Augustand captured New York City, which became their base until the war ended in After the Patriots captured a British invasion force moving down from Canada in the Saratoga campaign ofFrance entered the war as an ally of the US, and added the Netherlands and Spain as French allies.
Britain lost naval superiority and had no major allies and few friends in Europe.
The British strategy was then refocused on the South, where they expected large numbers of Loyalists would fight alongside the redcoats. Far fewer Loyalists took up arms than Britain needed; royal efforts to control the countryside in the South failed.
When the British army tried to return to New York, its rescue fleet was turned back by the French fleet and its army was captured by combined French-American forces under General George Washington at the Siege of Yorktown in October That effectively ended the fighting.
Peace treaty[ edit ] The Treaty of Paris ended the war in on terms quite favourable to the new nation. France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it captured Gibraltar from the British.
Vergennes came up with a deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar. The United States would gain its independence but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain would take the area north of the Ohio River.
In the area south of that would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control. It would be an Indian barrier state. The Americans realised that French friendship was worthless during these negotiations: John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France and Spain.U.S.-Soviet Relations, – The period – witnessed a dramatic transformation in the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
During these years the specter of a nuclear war between the superpowers receded as the Cold War ended swiftly, nearly entirely peacefully, and on U.S. terms. The international relationship between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America is quite strong yet complex.
Both countries have an extremely extensive economic partnership, and a great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates somewhat positive political relations, yet significant issues exist.
The Soviet Constitution directly violated the Declaration of Human Rights from the United Nations, and this issue became a prominent point of separation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Watch video · Détente (a French word meaning release from tension) is the name given to a period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began tentatively in and took.
NSC, National Security Council Paper NSC (entitled “United States Objectives and Programs for National Security” and frequently referred to as NSC) was a Top-Secret report completed by the U.S. Department of State’s Policy Planning Staff on April 7, The Cold War under Brezhnev.
PLAY. What was the purpose of President Reagan's speech?
Check all that apply. What caused relations between the United States and the Soviet Union to begin to change in the early s? Check all that apply.
The graph shows the growth of national income in the Soviet Union between .