You can use these triggers on Views, or Tables to perform any of the above specified operations. Remember, you can associate a trigger to a single table only.
Of course, in reality, we deal with much different circumstances, and we can find ourselves or overhear someone else saying, "Oops It's not in the backup yet, so can't be restored; and the user, of course, has closed his or her window without saving.
Solution There are a lot of solutions to this issue, of course. They include tightening down server access, adopting a reliable source control system, and implementing a rigorous and well-documented deployment process.
These things do not happen overnight, so in the meantime, DDL Triggers can provide a short-term fix that is both easy to implement and simple to manage. The approach is to take a snapshot of the current objects in the database, and then log all DDL changes from that point forward.
With a well-managed log, you could easily see the state of an object at any point in time assuming, of course, the objects are not encrypted.
So where do we start? First, I like to keep housekeeping items monitoring, administration etc. This allows me to query things centrally and also to control growth separately. For this task, let's use a database called AuditDB: We have a set of stored procedures already, and they are in a given state.
We will need to capture that state, in addition to Sql triggers changes that are made to them from that point forward. This way, we will always be able to get back to any state, including the original state. In addition to the data specific to the actions taken on stored procedures, we can also think of several other pieces of information we would want to store about each event.
I also prefer to use the database name to make ad hoc queries and script automation against specific databases easier.
You can choose which metadata to rely on; personally, I'll trade the space for readability and scriptability. Now that the table exists, we can easily grab a snapshot of our existing stored procedure definitions, leaving out some of the irrelevant auditing data, as follows replacing 'my name' with whatever you want to display for the initial rows: You can create a DDL Trigger with the following code, that will record pertinent data to the above table when changes are made to stored procedures: To disable it, you can run the following code: Right-click a procedure in Object Explorer and choose Modify.
Add the following line somewhere in the body: Now to go one step further, you can examine the differences between the initial object and its most recent state using a query like this: From here, you can take the values for "OriginalCode" and "NewestCode" and put them through your favorite diff tool to see what changes there have been.
And you can also change the query slightly to retrieve the latest version of any procedure, and the version that preceded it - I'll leave that as an exercise for the reader.
What the above does not capture are other peripheral changes that can happen to a stored procedure. For example, what about moving a procedure to a different schema?
And how about rename? In a future tip, I'll demonstrate how to restrict these additional auditing rows to specific objects or object types, so that you're not capturing all kinds of irrelevant information about changes to objects other than stored procedures.
Of course this only works for procedures that haven't been dropped - only if they have been created, modified, renamed, or transfered to a different schema.
Security might be an issue, depending on what you want to accomplish. Allow me to elaborate: DDL Triggers will not be transparent to users - first of all, they can see them in the Object Explorer tree, so it won't be a big secret that they are there and operational. If you want to hide the definition of the DDL Trigger, you can encrypt it as follows: This way, when users want to see what the trigger is doing, they will right-click to generate a script, but the following is what will happen: This property may not exist for this object, or may not be retrievable due to insufficient access rights.
The text is encrypted. But users with sufficient privileges can still disable the trigger, as described above. And you can't even capture this event, much less prevent it which DDL Triggers are sometimes used for. For more information, see these Connect items: But, given all of this, if you have to go to these lengths to prevent people from circumventing your auditing capabilites, then maybe your problems are larger and not all that technical.
I suspect that in most reasonable environments, you'll sleep fine at night simply locking down the audit table. I hope this provides a decent starting point to protect your environment s with DDL Triggers.
However, given the manual aspect of this approach as well as its limitations, it will likely be best to consider this a short-term plan, and look into more robust source control and recovery techniques in the longer term.
If you found this article useful and relevant, chances are, the Query Execution History feature alone will save your bacon or one of your co-workers' someday.Investigates several key database-programming concepts and how to combine them to create a high-quality database with Microsoft SQL Server.
SQL is a standard language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data in databases. Our SQL tutorial will teach you how to use SQL in: MySQL, SQL Server, MS Access, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Postgres, and other database systems.
With our online SQL editor, you can edit the SQL statements, and. plombier-nemours.comrs (Transact-SQL) 06/10/; 2 minutes to read Contributors. In this article APPLIES TO: SQL Server (starting with ) Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse Contains a row for each object that is a trigger, with a type of TR or TA.
A conceptual way of thinking how the deleted and inserted tables are used in an UPDATE operation is that SQL Server first deletes the old rows, populating the deleted table, and then inserts the new and modified rows, populating the inserted table.
While this isn't what actually happens, it helps visualize what the tables contain and is useful in that sense. CREATE TRIGGER (Transact-SQL) 08/10/; 24 minutes to read Contributors. all; Multiple Triggers. SQL Server allows for multiple triggers to be created for each DML, DDL, or LOGON event.
For example, if CREATE TRIGGER FOR UPDATE is executed for a table that already has an UPDATE trigger, an additional update trigger is created. Triggers A SQL trigger is a set of SQL statements stored in the database catalog.
A SQL trigger is executed or fired whenever an event associated with a table occurs e.g., insert, update or delete.
A SQL trigger is a special type of stored procedu.