John Horvat 3 It all began as one of those Friday afternoon projects that medical researchers sometimes do to satisfy curiosity. No one expected it to work.
Most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity written in Greek were unavailable, leaving only simplified summaries and compilations. Nonetheless, Roman and early medieval scientific texts were read and studied, contributing to the understanding of nature as a coherent system functioning under divinely established laws that could be comprehended in the light of reason.
This study continued through the Early Middle Ages, and with the Renaissance of the 12th centuryinterest in this study was revitalized through the translation of Greek and Arabic scientific texts. Scientific study further developed within the emerging medieval universities, where these texts were studied and elaborated, leading to new insights into the phenomena of the universe.
These advances are virtually unknown to the lay public of today, partly because most theories advanced in medieval science are today obsoleteand partly because of the caricature of Middle Ages as a supposedly " Dark Age " which placed "the word of religious authorities over personal experience and rational activity.
Medieval medicine and Medieval philosophy In the ancient world, Greek had been the primary language of science. Even under the Roman Empire, Latin texts drew extensively on Greek work, some pre-Roman, some contemporary; while advanced scientific research and teaching continued to be carried on in the Hellenistic side of the empire, in Greek.
Late Roman attempts to translate Greek writings into Latin had limited success. Most scientific inquiry came to be based on information gleaned from sources which were often incomplete and posed serious problems of interpretation.
Latin-speakers who wanted to learn about science only had access to books by such Roman writers as CalcidiusMacrobiusMartianus CapellaBoethiusCassiodorusand later Latin encyclopedists.
Much had to be gleaned from non-scientific sources: Roman surveying manuals were read for what geometry was included. De-urbanization reduced the scope of education and by the 6th century teaching and learning moved to monastic and cathedral schoolswith the center of education being the study of the Bible.
In the 7th century, learning began to emerge in Ireland and the Celtic lands, where Latin was a foreign language and Latin texts were eagerly studied and taught. They lived in an atmosphere which provided little institutional support for the disinterested study of natural phenomena.
The study of nature was pursued more for practical reasons than as an abstract inquiry: Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monasterya cathedral or a noble court.
The scientific work of the period after Charlemagne was not so much concerned with original investigation as it was with the active study and investigation of ancient Roman scientific texts.
Renaissance of the 12th centuryLatin translations of the 12th centuryand Medieval technology The translation of Greek and Arabic works allowed the full development of Christian philosophy and the method of scholasticism.
Beginning around the yearEuropean scholars built upon their existing knowledge by seeking out ancient learning in Greek and Arabic texts which they translated into Latin. They encountered a wide range of classical Greek texts, some of which had earlier been translated into Arabic, accompanied by commentaries and independent works by Islamic thinkers.
Gerard of Cremona is a good example: They started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. This period also saw the birth of medieval universitieswhich benefited materially from the translated texts and provided a new infrastructure for scientific communities.
Some of these new universities were registered as an institution of international excellence by the Holy Roman Empirereceiving the title of Studium Generale.
The education system of Middle Ages was highly influenced by the Church. Basic course of study used to contain Latin language, grammar, logic, rhetoric, philosophy, astrology, music and mathematics. Scholars, monks and bishops used ancient writings from Roman and Greek resources to teach their students while most of the educational courses were mostly based on superstitions and beliefs. The Middle Ages were a period in Europe dating from the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West, around the 5th century. "Medieval social theory held that society was made up of three 'estates': the nobility, composed of a small hereditary aristocracy, During the Middle Ages, the Church was a major part of everyday life. The Church. The social and judicial society of medieval period was influenced by ancient Roman and Germanic culture, however, the increasing influence of Church became the guiding force to develop educational system in The Middle Ages.
Most of the early Studia Generali were found in ItalyFranceEnglandand Spainand these were considered the most prestigious places of learning in Europe. This list quickly grew as new universities were founded throughout Europe. As early as the 13th century, scholars from a Studium Generale were encouraged to give lecture courses at other institutes across Europe and to share documents, and this led to the current academic culture seen in modern European universities.
The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle allowed the full development of the new Christian philosophy and the method of scholasticism.
By there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, EuclidPtolemyArchimedesand Galen —that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato.
Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of AvicennaAverroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries associated with teaching in the universities and independent treatises.
Scholastics believed in empiricism and supporting Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study, reason, and logic. The most famous was Thomas Aquinas later declared a " Doctor of the Church "who led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and towards Aristotelianism although natural philosophy was not his main concern.
Optical diagram showing light being refracted by a spherical glass container full of water from Roger Bacon, De multiplicatione specierum. Grosseteste was the founder of the famous Oxford Franciscan school.
Concluding from particular observations into a universal law, and then back again: Grosseteste called this "resolution and composition". Further, Grosseteste said that both paths should be verified through experimentation in order to verify the principals.Medieval pathology was based on the inept theory of the four “humors” of the body whose “balance” by the care giver was thought to bring about healing.
One of the main therapeutic approach was to bleed the sick patient of a pint of his blood each day. Criminal behavior has a multitude of theories attempting to explain its origins ranging form the bizarre to the mundane. These include everything from tattoos causing crime, to .
Military organization was remarkable, based on the corps of hereditary aristocracy and their households, but also including bodies of professional soldiers, and the national levies. The Church in Medieval society. The Church played a huge role in the Middle Ages society.
By its services to civilization it secured influence, and with it came wealth. People were beheaded and limbs cut off, vagabonds were often whipped and chained in stocks. People lived in a state of fear thinking they would be the next victim.
Even the Catholic Church used torture and imprisonment to obtain confessions from people regardless of whether they were guilty. Torture and punishment has existed for thousands of years. To prevent crime at as cheap a cost to society as possible. Positivism the view that just as laws operate in the medical, biological and physical sciences laws govern human behavior and these laws can be understood and used.
Fines, shaming (being placed in stocks), mutilation (cutting off a part of the body) or death were the most common forms of medieval punishment. There was no police force in the medieval period so law-enforcement was in the hands of the community.
The Manorial Court (Trial by Jury) The manorial court dealt with all but the most serious crimes.