A route may be composed of segments of different routing types. For example, a route from Chicago to Rome may include airway routing over the U.
Visual flight rules To put instrument flight rules into context, a brief overview of visual flight rules VFR is necessary. It is possible and fairly straightforward, in relatively clear weather conditions, to fly a plane solely by reference to outside visual cues, such as the horizon to maintain orientation, nearby buildings and terrain features for navigation, and other aircraft to maintain separation.
This is known as operating the aircraft under VFR, and is Flight plan most common mode of operation for small aircraft. However, it is safe to fly VFR only when Flight plan outside references can be clearly seen from a sufficient distance; when flying through or above clouds, or in fog, rain, dust or similar low-level weather conditions, these references can be obscured.
Thus, cloud ceiling and flight visibility are the most important variables for safe operations during all phases of flight. However, typical daytime VFR minimums for most airspace is 3 statute miles of flight visibility and a distance from clouds of ' below, 1,' above, and 2,' feet horizontally.
VFR pilots may use cockpit instruments as secondary aids to navigation and orientation, but are not required to; the view outside of the aircraft is the primary source for keeping the aircraft straight and level orientationflying to the intended destination navigationand not hitting anything separation.
VFR provides a great degree of freedom, allowing pilots to go where they want, when they want, and allows them a much wider latitude in determining how they get there. IFR permits an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions IMCwhich is essentially any weather condition less than VMC but in which aircraft can still operate safely.
Use of instrument flight rules is also required when flying in "Class A" airspace regardless of weather conditions. Class A airspace extends from 18, feet above mean sea level to flight level 60, feet pressure altitude above the contiguous 48 United States and overlying the waters within 12 miles thereof.
In many countries commercial airliners and their pilots must operate under IFR as the majority of flights enter Class A airspace; however, aircraft operating as commercial airliners must operate under IFR even if the flight plan does not take the craft into Class A airspace, such as with smaller regional flights.
Instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a very detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, and arrival procedures, and dispatch the flight.
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September Learn how and when to remove this template message The distance by which an aircraft avoids obstacles or other aircraft is termed separation. The most important concept of IFR flying is that separation is maintained regardless of weather conditions. In controlled airspaceair traffic control ATC separates IFR aircraft from obstacles and other aircraft using a flight clearance based on route, time, distance, speed, and altitude.
ATC monitors IFR flights on radaror through aircraft position reports in areas where radar coverage is not available. Aircraft position reports are sent as voice radio transmissions.
In the United States, a flight operating under IFR is required to provide position reports unless ATC advises a pilot that the plane is in radar contact. The pilot must resume position reports after ATC advises that radar contact has been lost, or that radar services are terminated.
A clearance always specifies a clearance limit, which is the farthest the aircraft can fly without a new clearance. In addition, a clearance typically provides a heading or route to follow, altitude, and communication parameters, such as frequencies and transponder codes.
In uncontrolled airspace, ATC clearances are unavailable. In some states a form of separation is provided to certain aircraft in uncontrolled airspace as far as is practical often known under ICAO as an advisory service in class G airspacebut separation is not mandated nor widely provided.PRIVACY ACT STATEMENT AUTHORITY: PRINCIPAL PURPOSE: 10 USC and EO To aid in accurate identification of personnel participating in the filed.
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Don't overpay for gas. AJR-B, Flight Services Program Ops Comments Domestic flight plan information is used to govern the flight of aircraft for the protection and identification of aircraft and property and persons on the ground.
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