The theory suggests that we form a relationship because the presence of a particular individual is associated with reinforcement. This is because rewarding stimuli creates positive feelings and these stimuli may be people. These people therefore make us happy, so, due to operant conditioning, we seek to adopt behaviours that lead to a desirable outcome and avoid those that lead to an undesirable outcome. Therefore, the presence of an individual produces positive reinforcement as they have a more attractive appeal.
Discuss two errors in attributions. Introduction Introduce by stating the underlying principle related within attribution theory Humans are very social and have a need to understand why things happen and how and why people behave in certain situations.
Introduce Fritz Heider Heider proposed a theory in which he suggested that we tend to interpret and explain our own behaviour and the behaviour of others by assigning attributes to behaviour.
Define attribution Attribution is how people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world and society.
Introduce attribution theory This has laid foundations for Discuss and evaluate the formation of attribution theory ATproposed by Heiderwhich attempts to provide an understanding and explanation for how people attribute causes to their own and other people's behaviour.
Two types of attributions According to Heider, when we observe somebody"s behaviour we are inclined to attribute its cause to either dispositional internal factors of that person or to situational external causes. Dispositional factors are internal, psychological factors that influence behaviour E.
Define attribution error An attributional error AE can be defined as a false assumption or distortion in perception or judgement about the causes of our own or other people"s behaviour.
Introduce the 2 main attribution errors which will be discussed Theories and studies have shown that there are two main AE"s in attribution: Give examples For example, assuming students from poor families get bad grades because they are unmotivated dispositional vs.
If people behave kindly towards us i. Or might attribute actors as a "crazy" person in real life due to the many roles in movies he had to play, which were mostly "deranged, crazy, and out-there. To see if student participants would make the FAE even when they knew all the actors were playing a role Method: Participants P"s randomly assigned tne of three roles: Game show host - asked to design their own questions Contestant - tried to answer questions Audience member - watched the game show After the game show, audience members were asked to rank the intelligence of the hosts and contestants Results: P"s consistently ranked the host as the most intelligent, even though they knew they were randomly assigned this role and that they had written the questions Conclusion: They failed to attribute the host's behaviour to situational factors of the role they had been randomly assigned instead attributed his performance to dispositional factors — intelligence Evaluation: Limitations Participants were all university students They often listen to professors who ask questions and provide answers like the game show host and are seen as authority figures The belief that authority figures who ask questions are intelligent could be a learned response, rather than attribution error Sample is not representative; small sample, part of specific school Findings cannot be generalised to a wider population Connection of study to question This study reflects and demonstrates that the FAE occurs because participants attributed the behaviour of hosts and contestants to dispositional factors intelligencerather than situational factors role They argued that the observers and contestants had ignored the fact that the questioners had an unfair situational advantage compiled the questions and had overestimated dispositional factors in making their judgements.
Jones and Harris, Aim: To see whether participants would demonstrate FAE when attributing behaviour to dispositioneven if they knew that a specific role was assigned, and chance-directed behaviours to situation.
Asked American students to read essays written by fellow students about Fidel Castro, who were told to write either pro- or anti- Castro and guess the attitude of the writers towards Castro. Half the participants were told the writers were free to choose their view on Castro in the essay choice condition.
Other half were told the writers had no choice; experimenters assigned them a view on Castro no choice condition. Participants assumed the viewpoint of Castro in speeches reflected attitudes dispositions of the writers in both choice and no choice condition.
Although participants knew that the view of the writers was constrained by situation, but still opted for dispositional attribution.(Gender Role Formation) II. Evaluate psychological research (that is, theories and/or studies) relevant to developmental psychology (Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development) Discuss how social and environmental variables may affect cognitive development.
AO1 AO2 AO3 Describe and evaluate two theories of the formation of relationships One theory is ‘The Matching Hypothesis’ which is a social psychological theory based on relationships, proposed by Goffman in State formation is the process of the development of a centralized government structure in a situation where one did not exist prior to its development.
State formation has been a study of many disciplines of the social sciences for a number of years. Discuss and evaluate the formation of romantic relationships Essay Describe and evaluate two or more theories for the formation of romantic relationships (8+16 marks) The similarity theory by Byrne et al explains the formation of relationships.
Discuss how sociocultural factors influence the formation and development of gender roles. Discuss how social and/or environmental variables may affect cognitive development.
Evaluate one theory or one study related to adolescence. DE | SPIRITUAL FORMATION 3 sem. hrs. discuss fully why this aspect makes the view unique from the others. b. In a final section of the paper, discuss which, if any, of the five report in which you evaluate this book.
Organize your report according to the points discussed below.