Further deviation with resentment and hostility towards punishers. Community stigmatizes the deviant as a criminal. Strengthening of deviant conduct because of stigmatizing penalties.
History of sociology The field of sociology itself—and sociological theory by extension—is relatively new.
Both date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The drastic social changes of that period, such as industrializationurbanizationand the rise of democratic states caused particularly Western thinkers to become aware of society.
The oldest sociological theories deal with broad historical processes relating to these changes. Since then, sociological theories have come to encompass most aspects of societyincluding communitiesorganizations and relationships.
Sociological theory attempts to answer the following three questions: In the myriad attempts to answer these questions, three predominately theoretical i.
These problems are largely inherited from the classical theoretical traditions. The consensus on the central theoretical problems is: The first deals with knowledge, the second with agency, and the last with time. Lastly, sociological theory often grapples with the problem of integrating or transcending the divide between micro, meso and macro-scale social phenomena, which is a subset of all three central problems.
These problems are not altogether empirical problems, rather they are epistemological: Objectivity and subjectivity[ edit ] Main articles: Objectivity scienceObjectivity philosophyand Subjectivity The problem of subjectivity and objectivity can be divided into a concern over the general possibilities of social actions, and, on the other hand the specific problem of social scientific knowledge.
The objective is often considered any public or external action or outcome, on up to society writ large. A primary question for social theorists, is how knowledge reproduces along the chain of subjective-objective-subjective, that is to say: While, historically, qualitative methods have attempted to tease out subjective interpretations, quantitative survey methods also attempt to capture individual subjectivities.
Also, some qualitative methods take a radical approach to objective description in situ. The latter concern with scientific knowledge results from the fact that a sociologist is part of the very object they seek to explain. Bourdieu puts this problem rather succinctly: How can the sociologist effect in practice this radical doubting which is indispensable for bracketing all the presuppositions inherent in the fact that she is a social being, that she is therefore socialized and led to feel "like a fish in water" within that social world whose structures she has internalized?
How can she prevent the social world itself from carrying out the construction of the object, in a sense, through her, through these unself-conscious operations or operations unaware of themselves of which she is the apparent subject — Pierre Bourdieu, "The Problem of Reflexive Sociology" in An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology  Structure and agency[ edit ] Main article: Structure and agency Structure and agency, sometimes referred to as determinism versus voluntarism,  form an enduring ontological debate in social theory: Discussions over the primacy of either structure and agency relate to the core of sociological epistemology "What is the social world made of?
Synchrony and diachrony[ edit ] Synchrony and diachrony, or statics and dynamics, within social theory are terms that refer to a distinction emerging out of the work of Levi-Strauss who inherited it from the linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure.
Diachrony, on the other hand, attempts to analyze dynamic sequences.What causes deviance and deviant behavior? There are four major sociological theories that seek to answer this question. Labeling theory is one of the most important approaches to understanding deviant and criminal behavior within sociology.
It begins with the assumption that no act is intrinsically criminal. Deviance: Deviance, in sociology, violation of social rules and conventions.
French sociologist Émile Durkheim viewed deviance as an inevitable part of how society functions. He argued that deviance is a basis for change and innovation, and it is also a way of defining or clarifying important social norms. Since the early days of sociology, scholars have developed theories that attempt to explain what deviance and crime mean to society.
These theories can be grouped according to the three major sociological paradigms: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory.
Sociological Theories of Deviance Sociologists have developed theories of deviance that follow the three main theoretical perspectives. Here, we will review these theories, using examples. With strain theory, Merton provides an explanation mostly for deviance based on. The primary contribution of anomie theory is its ability to explain many forms of deviance.
The theory is also sociological in its emphasis on the role of social forces in creating deviance. On the negative side, anomie theory has been criticized for its generality.
Critics note the theory's lack of statements concerning the process of learning deviance, .