History[ edit ] The first hint of the philosophy that would become "Self-Reliance" was presented by Ralph Waldo Emerson as part of a sermon in September a month after his first marriage. Richardson wrote, "Immortality had never been stronger or more desperately needed! These lectures were never published separately, but many of his thoughts in these were later used in "Self-Reliance" and several other essays. This new philosophy drew upon old ideas of Romanticism, Unitarianism, and German Idealism.
References and Further Reading 1. That this required him to formulate an entirely new philosophical system would not have been viewed by him as a problem, for it was, in his eyes, precisely what the Platonic doctrine required. Also, in the Hellenistic era, certain Platonic ideas were taken up by thinkers of various loyalties -- Jewish, Gnostic, Christian -- and worked up Basic self and pseudo essay new forms of expression that varied quite considerably from what Plato actually wrote in his Dialogues.
Indeed, we already see a hint, in the doctrines of Xenocrates the second head of the Old Academy of a type of salvation theory involving the unification of the two parts of the human soul -- the "Olympian" or heavenly, and the "Titanic" or earthly Dillonp.
In any case, the early Hermetic-Gnostic tradition is certainly to an extent Platonic, and later Gnosticism and Christian Logos theology markedly so.
If an intellectual reply to a general yearning for personal salvation is what characterizes Neoplatonism, then the highly intellectual Gnostics and Christians of the Late Hellenistic era must be given the title of Neoplatonists.
He answered the challenge of accounting for the emergence of a seemingly inferior and flawed cosmos from the perfect mind of the divinity by declaring outright that all objective existence is but the external self-expression of an inherently contemplative deity known as the One to henor the Good ta kalon.
This diminution of the divine essence in temporality is but a necessary moment of the complete expression of the One.
By elevating the experience of the individual soul to the status of an actualization of a divine Form, Plotinus succeeded, also, in preserving, if not the autonomy, at least the dignity and ontological necessity of personality.
This error gives rise to evil, which is the purely subjective relation of the Soul now divided to the manifold and concrete forms of its expressive act. When the Soul, in the form of individual existents, becomes thus preoccupied with its experience, Nature comes into being, and the Cosmos takes on concrete form as the locus of personality.
While Plotinus suggests that the One subsists by thinking itself as itself, the Intellect subsists through thinking itself as other, and therefore becomes divided within itself: At this point, the thinking or contemplation of the Intellect is divided up and ordered into thoughts, each of them subsisting in and for themselves, as autonomous reflections of the dunamis of the One.
This activity of the Soul results in the production of numerous individual souls: Whereas the Intellect became divided within itself through contemplation, the Soul becomes divided outside of itself, through action which is still contemplation, according to Plotinus, albeit the lowest type; cf.
Let us now examine the manner in which Plotinus explains Nature as the locus of personality.
Nature and Personality Contemplation, at the level of the Soul, is for Plotinus a two-way street. The Soul both contemplates, passively, the Intellect, and reflects upon its own contemplative act by producing Nature and the Cosmos.
This reflection, if carried by the individual soul with a memory of its provenance always in the foreground, will lead to a just governing of the physical Cosmos, which will make of it a perfect material image of the Intellectual Cosmos, i.
For when the soul extends itself ever farther into the indeterminacy of materiality, it gradually loses memory of its divine origin, and comes to identify itself more and more with its surroundings -- that is to say: This is tantamount to a relinquishing, by the soul, of its divine nature.
When the soul has thus abandoned itself, it begins to accrue many alien encrustations, if you will, that make of it something less than divine. And yet the soul is never completely lost, for, as Plotinus insists, the soul need simply "think upon essential being" in order to return to itself, and continue to exist authentically as a governor of the Cosmos Ennead IV.
The memory of the personality that this wandering soul possessed must be forgotten in order for it to return completely to its divine nature; for if it were remembered, we would have to say, contradictorily, that the soul holds a memory of what occurred during its state of forgetfulness!
So in a sense, Plotinus holds that individual personalities are not maintained at the level of Soul.Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Historically, scientific racist ideas received credence in the scientific community but are no longer considered . Essay Questions and Selected Answers June 2 ESSAY QUESTIONS AND SELECTED ANSWERS JUNE FIRST-YEAR LAW STUDENTS’ EXAMINATION This publication contains the essay questions from the June California First-Year False Imprisonment Dolly may have a cause of action against Al for false imprisonment.
Defining the self-reflection essay and learning how to start a reflection paper A reflective essay is exactly what it sounds like—it is a paper that describes live events and experiences that you have endured – good and bad – that have helped shape the person you are today.
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By William Deresiewicz | March 6, The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Another great essay. I enjoy your writing so much Mr. Kingsworth– its like having my innermost feelings, thoughts and ideas given voice in .