Alienation in neoliberal society occurs because in work each contributes to the common wealth, but they can only express this fundamentally social aspect of individuality through a production system that is not publicly social but privately owned, for which each individual functions as an instrument, not as a social being.
THIS volume is intended to be a contribution, I am aware a very slight one, to a special branch of the study of our own language. It proposes to trace in a popular manner and for general readers the changes of meaning which so many of its words have undergone; words which, as current with us as they were with our forefathers, yet mean something different on our lips from what they meant upon theirs.
Of my success in carrying out the scheme which I had set before myself, it does not become me to speak, except to say that I have fallen a good deal below my hopes, and infinitely below my desires.
But of the scheme itself I have no doubts I feel sure that, if only adequately carried out, few works of the same compass could embrace matter of more manifold instruction, or in a region of knowledge which it would be more desirable to occupy.
It becomes, therefore, a duty to seek elsewhere the best substitutes within reach for that discipline of the faculties which these languages would better than any other have afforded. And I believe, when these two are set aside, our own language and literature will furnish the best substitutes; which, even though they may not satisfy perfectly, are not, therefore, to be rejected.
I am persuaded that the decomposition, word by word, of small portions of our best poetry and prose — Lycidas suggests itself to me as in verse offering more exactly what I seek than any other poem, perhaps some of Bacon's Essays in prose-the compensations which we look for are most capable of being found; even as I have little doubt that in many of our higher English schools compensations of the kind are already oftentimes obtained.
In such a decomposition, to be followed by a reconstruction, of some small portions of a great English Classic, matters almost innumerable, and pressing on the attention from every side, would claim to be noticed; but certainly not last nor least the changes which, on close examination, would be seen to have overcome many of the words employed.
Vii detection, unless constant vigilance is used, these changes often have been; to trace here and there the progressive steps by which the old meaning has been put off, and the new put on, the exact road which a word has travelled; this has been my purpose here; and I have desired by such means to render some small assistance to those who are disposed to regard this as a serviceable discipline in the training of their own minds or the minds of others.
The book is, as its name declares, a Select Glossary. There would have been no difficulty whatever in doubling or trebling the number of articles admitted into it. But my purpose being rather to arouse curiosity than fully to gratify it, to lead others themselves to take note of changes, and to account for them, rather than to take altogether this pleasant labor out of their hands and to do for them what they could more profitably do for themselves, I have consciously left much of the work undone, even as unconsciously, no doubt, I have left a great deal more.
At the same time it has not been mere caprice which has induced the particular selection of words which has been actually made. Various motives, but in almost every case such as I could give account of to myself, have ruled this selection.
And as the words brought forward have been selected with some care, and according to certain rules which have for the most part indicated their selection, so also has it been with the passages adduced in proof of the changes of meaning which they have undergone. The principal value which a volume of such humble pretensions as the present can possess, must consist in the happiness with which these have been chosen.
Not every passage, which really contains evidence of the assertion made, will for all this serve to be adduced in proof, and this I presently discovered in the many which for one cause or another it was necessary to set aside.
There are various excellencies which ought to meet in such passages, but which will not by any means be found in all. They should bear, too, upon their front;, that amount of triumphant proof, which will carry conviction not merely to the student who, by a careful observation of many like passages, and a previous knowledge of what was a word's prevailing use in the time of the writer, is prepared to receive it, but to him, also, to whom all this is presented now for the first time, who has no predisposition to believe, but is disposed, rather, to be incredulous about it.
Then, again, they should, if possible, be passages capable of being detached from their context without the necessity of drawing a large amount of this context after them for the making them intelligible; like trees which will endure to be transplanted without carrying with them a huge and cumbrous bulk of earth, clinging to their roots.
Once more, they should, if possible, be such as have a certain intrinsic worth and value of their own, independent of their value as illustrative of the point in language directly to be proved-some weight of thought, or beauty of expression, or merit of some other kind, that so the reader may be making a second gain by the way.
I can by no means claim this for all, or nearly all of mine. Still there will be many citations found in these pages which, while they fulfil the primary intention with which they were quoted, are not wanting, also, in this secondary worth.
In my citations I have throughout acted on the principle that "Enough is as good as a feast;" and that this same' Enough," as the proverb may well be completed, is better than a surfeit.
So soon as that earlier meaning, from which our present is a departure, or which once subsisted side by side with our present, however it may have now disappeared, has been sufficiently established, I have held my hand, and not brought further quotations in proof.
In most cases, indeed, it has seemed desirable to adduce passages from two or three authors; without which a suspicion may always remain in the mind, that we are dealing with the exceptional peculiarity of a single writer, who even in his day stood alone. I do not feel confident that in some, though rare, instances I have not brought forward exceptional uses of this kind.
Two words I will add in conclusion. Indeed those materials have never so much as come under my eye, except some exceedingly small portions of them, which by accident passed through my hands on their wav to those of the Editor; not to say that this little Glossary was in all essential parts completed two years ago; before that great work was so much as contemplated.
And as I owe nothing to these MS. This value I may claim for my book, that it is with the very most trifling exceptions an entirely independent and original collection of passages illustrative of the history of our language.
Of my citations, I believe about a thousand in all, I may owe some twenty at the most to existing Dictionaries or Glossaries, to Nares, or Johnson, or Todd, or Richardson.
In perhaps some twenty cases more I have lighted upon and selected a passage by one of them selected before, and have not thought it desirable, or have not found it possible, to choose some other in its room. These excepted, the collection is entirely independent of all those which have previously been made.So, the analysis of alienation demands more than a simple psychological description about individual behavior.
Alienation as a social phenomenon Alienation is the process in which the personal and primary relationships become loose. Shamans play an important role as healers of the sick; this role A popular alternative was the service offered by seers or soothsayers, who, unlike the oracles, were prepared to travel—particularly useful for Greek armies on the move.
Julius Caesar is named “dictator for life” before his assassination in 44 BCE. Household gods. No. Word. Root. Meaning. Word Meaning. 1 astral astro stars relating to the stars. 2 astringent stringere bind harsh. 3 astronomical astro stars enormously large.
"Julius Caesar (Characters of the Play)" Track Info. Written By William Shakespeare. Julius Caesar William Shakespeare. In this striking tragedy of political conflict, Shakespeare turns to the ancient Roman world and to the famous assassination of Julius Caesar by his republican opponents.
The play is one of tumultuous rivalry, of prophetic warnings—’Beware the ides of March‘—and of moving public oratory 5/5(1). Contemporary accounts tell us that Julius Caesar, Shakespeare’s shortest play, was first performed in It was probably the first play performed in the Globe Theater, the playhouse that was erected around that time in order to accommodate Shakespeare’s increasingly successful theater company.